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This has been observed to cause a surface temperature drop which the planet takes months to recover from. If this experiment works on Mars, they will propose to build several large and sealed structures called biodomes , to produce and harvest oxygen for a future human mission to Mars life support systems.
Research at the University of Arkansas presented in June suggested that some methanogens could survive in Mars's low pressure.
The four species that she tested were Methanothermobacter wolfeii , Methanosarcina barkeri , Methanobacterium formicicum , and Methanococcus maripaludis.
One key aspect of terraforming Mars is to protect the atmosphere both present and future-built from being lost into space. Some scientists hypothesize that creating a planet-wide artificial magnetosphere would be helpful in resolving this issue.
According to two NIFS Japanese scientists, it is feasible to do that with current technology by building a system of refrigerated latitudinal superconducting rings, each carrying a sufficient amount of direct current.
In the same report, it is claimed that the economic impact of the system can be minimized by using it also as a planetary energy transfer and storage system SMES.
During the Planetary Science Vision Workshop  in late February , NASA scientist Jim Green proposed a concept of placing a magnetic dipole field between the planet and the Sun to protect it from high-energy solar particles.
The paper abstract cites that this could be achieved by a magnet with a strength of 1—2 teslas 10,—20, gauss. Simulations indicate that within years, the planet would be able to achieve half the atmospheric pressure of Earth.
Without solar winds stripping away at the planet, frozen carbon dioxide at the ice caps on either pole would begin to sublimate change from a solid into a gas and warm the equator.
Ice caps would begin to melt to form an ocean. The overall energy required to sublimate the CO 2 from the south polar ice cap was modeled by Zubrin and McKay in This is considered the most effective method, though the least practical.
If using powerful halocarbon greenhouse gases, an order of 1, MW-years of electrical energy would be required to accomplish this heating.
However, if all of this CO 2 were put into the atmosphere, it would only double  the current atmospheric pressure from 6 mbar to 12 mbar, amounting to about 1.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the technological process. For the board game, see Terraforming Mars board game.
See also: Ethics of terraforming. See also: Colonization of Mars. See also: Health threat from cosmic rays. See also: Atmosphere of Mars.
February 7, Retrieved May 26, Little, Brown and Company. Retrieved April 9, The Escapist. September 11, Retrieved June 2, On to Mars: Colonizing a New World.
Apogee Books Space Series. Retrieved November 26, Retrieved September 8, The Guardian. Vaisberg, O. L et al. Journal Of Geophysical Research , Vol.
Planetary Science Vision Workshop Bibcode : Natur. Retrieved March 3, Zubrin Pioneer Astronautics , Christopher P.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Bibcode : PNAS The red planet offers no natural protection against solar radiation.
The surface of Mars is exposed to much higher levels of radiation than Earth. And in addition to regular exposure to cosmic rays and solar wind, it receives occasional lethal blasts that occur with strong solar flares.
Prolonged exposure to radiation with levels detected on Mars could lead to all kinds of health problems, like acute radiation sickness, increased risk of cancer, genetic damage, and even death.
Mars dust is another huge problem. It is much finer than the dust on Earth, so it could easily find its way into the gears or electronics of our machines.
It is also very dry, electrostatically charged because of that. It will stick everything, like spacesuits.
There can be also psychological problems among the crew, after being stuck indoors in tight spaces without windows, with the same people, performing the same routines every single day, with little contact with the Earth, and a lot of things and dangers to worry about.
Distance is another problem. Earth and Mars are separated by millions of kilometers, and orbital periods that leave only a narrow travel window every two years.
Even communicating with the red planet takes minutes with the speed of light. How about terraforming Mars? If we could make it a place like Earth with geoengineering, the challenges of colonizing Mars would vanish.
Today, the Martian atmosphere is thin, dry, cold, and poisonous. But that was not always the case. Evidence suggests the possibility that Mars had large oceans a few billion years ago.
Because of the low atmospheric pressure, if you pour some water on its surface, for example, it would quickly boil away.
First, we must build a magnetosphere, otherwise, solar winds would sweep away the atmosphere we just built.
But how can we do that? Simulations showed that a shield of this sort would leave Mars in the relatively protected magnetotail of the magnetic field created by the object.
Mars has frozen carbon dioxide dry ice in its poles. Heating the poles will sublimate some of it into the atmosphere. The sublimation will lead to a bit higher CO 2 pressure which will lead a greenhouse effect, therefore higher temperatures, and even more sublimation.
Another option is installing fusion power plants at the poles which would slowly melt the dry ice. We could also put very big mirrors into Mars orbit.
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